Demographics of hampton, va

Demographics of hampton, va DEFAULT

Hampton, Virginia Population 2021

Hampton is a city located in Virginia. With a 2020 population of 134,870, it is the 7thlargest city in Virginia and the 203rd largest city in the United States. Hampton is currently growing at a rate of 0.13% annually but its population has decreased by -1.87% since the most recent census, which recorded a population of 137,436 in 2010. Hampton reached it's highest population of 146,437 in 2000. Spanning over 136 miles, Hampton has a population density of 2,621 people per square mile.

The average household income in Hampton is $72,086 with a poverty rate of 15.18%. The median rental costs in recent years comes to $1,118 per month, and the median house value is $186,700. The median age in Hampton is 36.2 years, 33.9 years for males, and 38.1 years for females.

Hampton Demographics

According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Hampton was:

  • Black or African American: 49.95%
  • White: 41.11%
  • Two or more races: 4.20%
  • Asian: 2.48%
  • Other race: 1.63%
  • Native American: 0.47%
  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.17%

Hampton, Virginia

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Current weather forecast for Hampton, VA

Population in 2019: 134,510 (100% urban, 0% rural).
Population change since 2000: -8.1%
Males: 65,047  (48.4%)
Females: 69,463  (51.6%)
Median resident age:35.7 years
Virginia median age:38.5 years

Zip codes:23605, 23651, 23661, 23663, 23664, 23666, 23669.

Hampton Zip Code MapEstimated median household income in 2019: $56,930 (it was $39,532 in 2000)

Estimated per capita income in 2019: $31,654 (it was $19,774 in 2000)

Hampton city income, earnings, and wages data

Estimated median house or condo value in 2019: $193,500 (it was $90,000 in 2000)

Mean prices in 2019:all housing units: $213,439; detached houses: $220,437; townhouses or other attached units: $146,730; in 5-or-more-unit structures: $404,796; mobile homes: $14,336

Median gross rent in 2019: $1,100.

March 2019 cost of living index in Hampton: 96.0 (near average, U.S. average is 100)

Hampton, VA residents, houses, and apartments details

Percentage of residents living in poverty in 2019: 13.8%
(11.3% for White Non-Hispanic residents, 16.7% for Black residents, 11.4% for Hispanic or Latino residents, 12.5% for Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander residents, 23.4% for other race residents, 10.7% for two or more races residents)

Detailed information about poverty and poor residents in Hampton, VA

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According to our research of Virginia and other state lists, there were 483 registered sex offenders living in Hampton, Virginia as of October 19, 2021.
The ratio of all residents to sex offenders in Hampton is 280 to 1.

The crime index weighs serious crimes and violent crimes more heavily. Higher means more crime, U.S. average is 270.6. It adjusts for the number of visitors and daily workers commuting into cities.

- means the value is smaller than the state average.
- means the value is about the same as the state average.
- means the value is bigger than the state average.
- means the value is much bigger than the state average.

Click on a table row to update graph crime index in Hampton, VA

Crime rate in Hampton detailed stats: murders, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts, arson

Full-time law enforcement employees in 2019, including police officers: 377 (285 officers).
Officers per 1,000 residents here:2.14
Virginia average:2.27 Blog Recent articles from our blog. Our writers, many of them Ph.D. graduates or candidates, create easy-to-read articles on a wide variety of topics.

Latest news from Hampton, VA collected exclusively by from local newspapers, TV, and radio stations


Ancestries: American (7.2%), English (3.6%), African (2.7%), German (2.5%), Irish (2.1%), Italian (1.1%).

Current Local Time: EST time zone

Incorporated in 1849

Elevation: 10 feet

Land area: 51.8 square miles.

Population density: 2,598 people per square mile  (average).

Hampton, Virginia map

6,478 residents are foreign born (1.8% Latin America, 1.6% Asia, 0.5% Europe, 0.5% Africa).

This city:4.8%

Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units with mortgages in 2019: $1,900 (1.0%)
Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units with no mortgage in 2019: $1,896 (1.1%)

Nearest city with pop. 200,000+: Norfolk, VA (11.7 miles , pop. 234,403).

Nearest city with pop. 1,000,000+: Philadelphia, PA (215.2 miles , pop. 1,517,550).

Nearest cities:

Latitude: 37.03 N, Longitude: 76.36 W

Daytime population change due to commuting: +1,812 (+1.3%)
Workers who live and work in this city: 33,043 (49.5%)

Area code commonly used in this area: 757

Distribution of median household income in Hampton, VA in 2019
Distribution of house value in Hampton, VA in 2019
Hampton satellite photo by USGS

Hampton tourist attractions:

Hampton, Virginia accommodation & food services, waste management - Economy and Business Data

Single-family new house construction building permits:

  • 1997: 244 buildings, average cost: $76,400
  • 1998: 253 buildings, average cost: $72,700
  • 1999: 332 buildings, average cost: $75,800
  • 2000: 324 buildings, average cost: $64,900
  • 2001: 348 buildings, average cost: $66,900
  • 2002: 277 buildings, average cost: $85,300
  • 2003: 198 buildings, average cost: $109,100
  • 2004: 321 buildings, average cost: $114,800
  • 2005: 259 buildings, average cost: $193,500
  • 2006: 240 buildings, average cost: $167,900
  • 2007: 217 buildings, average cost: $230,400
  • 2008: 187 buildings, average cost: $198,800
  • 2009: 139 buildings, average cost: $226,300
  • 2010: 130 buildings, average cost: $225,400
  • 2011: 164 buildings, average cost: $149,800
  • 2012: 137 buildings, average cost: $128,800
  • 2013: 145 buildings, average cost: $135,000
  • 2014: 160 buildings, average cost: $44,300
  • 2015: 162 buildings, average cost: $64,100
  • 2016: 149 buildings, average cost: $61,800
  • 2017: 170 buildings, average cost: $62,500
  • 2018: 179 buildings, average cost: $62,300
  • 2019: 183 buildings, average cost: $62,400
Number of permits per 10,000 Hampton, VA residents
Average permit cost in Hampton, VA
Unemployment in November 2020:
Unemployment by year
Historical population in Hampton, VA
Historical housing units in Hampton, VA

Population change in the 1990s: +12,427 (+9.3%).
Most common industries in Hampton, VA (%)
Most common industries in 2000
  • Educational services (9.8%)
  • Public administration (8.9%)
  • Health care (8.4%)
  • Transportation equipment (8.0%)
  • Accommodation & food services (6.4%)
  • Construction (6.4%)
  • Professional, scientific, technical services (4.7%)
Most common industries for males in 2000
  • Transportation equipment (13.1%)
  • Construction (11.5%)
  • Public administration (10.6%)
  • Educational services (5.7%)
  • Accommodation & food services (5.4%)
  • Professional, scientific, technical services (4.9%)
  • Administrative & support & waste management services (4.2%)
Most common industries for females in 2000
  • Educational services (13.6%)
  • Health care (13.5%)
  • Accommodation & food services (7.4%)
  • Public administration (7.4%)
  • Administrative & support & waste management services (4.6%)
  • Professional, scientific, technical services (4.5%)
  • Social assistance (4.0%)
Most common occupations in Hampton, VA (%)
Most common occupations in 2019
  • Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (5.1%)
  • Customer service representatives (4.4%)
  • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (4.2%)
  • Laborers and material movers, hand (3.6%)
  • Computer specialists (3.4%)
  • Electrical equipment mechanics and other installation, maintenance, and repair workers, including supervisors (2.9%)
  • Metal workers and plastic workers (2.7%)
Most common occupations for males in 2019
  • Metal workers and plastic workers (5.0%)
  • Electrical equipment mechanics and other installation, maintenance, and repair workers, including supervisors (5.0%)
  • Laborers and material movers, hand (4.7%)
  • Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (4.7%)
  • Customer service representatives (4.5%)
  • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (4.5%)
  • Computer specialists (3.9%)
Most common occupations for females in 2019
  • Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (5.5%)
  • Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (4.6%)
  • Customer service representatives (4.3%)
  • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (3.8%)
  • Cashiers (3.8%)
  • Health technologists and technicians (3.7%)
  • Registered nurses (3.0%)

Average climate in Hampton, Virginia

Based on data reported by over 4,000 weather stations

Hampton, Virginia average temperaturesHampton, Virginia average precipitationHampton, Virginia humidityHampton, Virginia wind speedHampton, Virginia snowfallHampton, Virginia sunshineHampton, Virginia clear and cloudy days

Hampton, Virginia environmental map by EPA

Map Legend

Air pollution and air quality trends
(lower is better)
Air Quality Index

Air Quality Index (AQI) level in 2018 was 57.2. This is better than average.

Carbon Monoxide Level

Carbon Monoxide (CO) [ppm] level in 2018 was 0.171. This is significantly better than average.Closest monitor was 3.2 miles away from the city center.

Nitrogen Dioxide Level

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) [ppb] level in 2018 was 3.30. This is significantly better than average.Closest monitor was 5.0 miles away from the city center.

Sulfur Dioxide Level

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) [ppb] level in 2018 was 0.612. This is significantly better than average.Closest monitor was 3.2 miles away from the city center.

Ozone Level

Ozone [ppb] level in 2018 was 33.1. This is about average.Closest monitor was 3.2 miles away from the city center.

Particulate Matter Level

Particulate Matter (PM2.5) [µg/m3] level in 2018 was 6.08. This is better than average.Closest monitor was 3.2 miles away from the city center.

Lead Level

Lead (Pb) [µg/m3] level in 2018 was 0.00176. This is significantly better than average.Closest monitor was 1.0 miles away from the city center.

Tornado activity:

Hampton-area historical tornado activity is near Virginia state average. It is 27% smaller than the overall U.S. average.

On 9/5/1979, a category F3 (max. wind speeds 158-206 mph) tornado 5.0 miles away from the Hampton city center injured 2 peopleand causedbetween $500,000 and $5,000,000 in damages.

On 4/28/2008, a category F3 tornado 29.0 miles away from the city center injured 200 peopleand caused $30 million in damages.

Earthquake activity:

Hampton-area historical earthquake activity is significantly above Virginia state average. It is 63% smaller than the overall U.S. average.

On 8/23/2011 at 17:51:04, a magnitude 5.8 (5.8 MW, Depth: 3.7 mi, Class: Moderate, Intensity: VI - VII) earthquake occurred 105.6 miles away from the city center
On 12/9/2003 at 20:59:14, a magnitude 4.5 (4.5 MB, 4.5 LG, Class: Light, Intensity: IV - V) earthquake occurred 93.1 miles away from Hampton center
On 12/9/2003 at 20:59:18, a magnitude 4.5 (4.5 ML, Depth: 6.2 mi) earthquake occurred 108.4 miles away from Hampton center
On 8/25/2011 at 05:07:52, a magnitude 4.5 (4.5 ML, Depth: 4.2 mi) earthquake occurred 108.4 miles away from Hampton center
On 8/9/2020 at 12:07:37, a magnitude 5.1 (5.1 MW, Depth: 4.7 mi) earthquake occurred 265.1 miles away from Hampton center
On 1/15/2019 at 23:30:48, a magnitude 4.6 (4.6 MW, Depth: 6.2 mi) earthquake occurred 185.2 miles away from the city center
Magnitude types: regional Lg-wave magnitude (LG), body-wave magnitude (MB), local magnitude (ML), moment magnitude (MW)Hampton topographic map


Hospitals in Hampton:

  • HAMPTON VA MEDICAL CENTER (Government Federal, provides emergency services, 100 EMANCIPATION DRIVE)
  • SENTARA CAREPLEX HOSPITAL (Voluntary non-profit - Private, 3000 COLISEUM DRIVE)

Nursing Homes in Hampton:


Dialysis Facilities in Hampton:


Home Health Centers in Hampton:


Airports and heliports located in Hampton:

See details about Airports and heliports located in Hampton, VA

Amtrak stations near Hampton:

  • 6 miles: NEWPORT NEWS (9304 WARWICK BLVD.) . Services: ticket office, fully wheelchair accessible, enclosed waiting area, public restrooms, public payphones, free short-term parking, free long-term parking, call for car rental service, call for taxi service, public transit connection.
  • 13 miles: NORFOLK (MONTICELLO AVE. & VA. BEACH BLVD.) - Bus Station . Services: public payphones, free short-term parking, call for taxi service, intercity bus service, public transit connection.

Operable nuclear power plants near Hampton:

  • 8 miles: Surry 1 and 2 in Newport News, VA.

Local government

Colleges/Universities in Hampton:

  • Thomas Nelson Community College (Full-time enrollment: 7,056; Location: 99 Thomas Nelson Drive; Public; Website:
  • Hampton University (Full-time enrollment: 4,494; Location: E Queen Street; Private, not-for-profit; Website:; Offers Doctor's degree)
  • Bryant & Stratton College-Hampton (Full-time enrollment: 514; Location: 4410 East Claiborne Square, Suite 233; Private, for-profit; Website:
  • Virginia School of Hair Design (Full-time enrollment: 134; Location: 101 West Queens Way; Private, for-profit; Website:
  • Bethel College (Full-time enrollment: 61; Location: 1705 Todds Ln; Private, not-for-profit; Website:

Other colleges/universities with over 2000 students near Hampton:

  • Christopher Newport University (about 8 miles; Newport News, VA; Full-time enrollment: 5,061)
  • Old Dominion University (about 11 miles; Norfolk, VA; FT enrollment: 19,825)
  • Tidewater Community College (about 14 miles; Norfolk, VA; FT enrollment: 20,975)
  • Norfolk State University (about 14 miles; Norfolk, VA; FT enrollment: 6,032)
  • ECPI University (about 17 miles; Virginia Beach, VA; FT enrollment: 10,694)
  • Regent University (about 19 miles; Virginia Beach, VA; FT enrollment: 3,429)
  • College of William and Mary (about 26 miles; Williamsburg, VA; FT enrollment: 7,617)

Public high schools in Hampton:

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Hampton Population Statistics

Source & Methodology

Analytics built by:   Location, Inc.

Raw data sources:   American Community Survey, U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Education, 50 state departments of education, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 18,000+ local law enforcement agencies, Federal Housing Finance Agency, U.S. Geological Service, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

Date(s) & Update Frequency:   2019 (latest available). Updated annually. Please note: Unemployment data updated August 2021.

Methodology:   Unlike standardly available Census demographics, NeighborhoodScout uses dozens of custom models to transform 8.5 million raw demographic data elements from government sources into proprietary indices and insights…. Read more about Scout's Demographic Data

Hampton Population & Age Distribution

Age is classified into groups; each percentage listed is that group’s percentage of the total population.


Under 5 Years:

5 - 17:

18 - 24:

25 - 34:

35 - 54:

55 - 64:

Over 65 Years:

Educational Attainment of Adults

The educational status of the city’s residents who are 18 and older.

Attending College

High School Graduates

College Graduated

Per Capita Income

Per capita is the best measure of the average spending power of each person in the city.

Median Household Income

Median household income provides the best measure of the budget of the typical family or other non-family household.

Per capita Income

Median household income

Individuals Below Poverty Level:

Employment Industries in Hampton

These are the types of employers who city residents work for.

Race & Ethnic Diversity

This is how city residents have self-reported their race and ethnicity to the US Census. Asian and Hispanic residents may identify with one of the more specific subcategories.

Ancestries & Languages Spoken

These are the most common groups that city residents self-reported as their ancestry.


These are tabulated as the languages people preferentially speak when they are at home with their families.

Foreign Born Percentage

Foreign Born residents have immigrated to the United States from another country and may or may not be naturalized citizens.

Foreign Born Hampton Residents:

Real Estate in Popular Hampton Neighborhoods

Popular real estate near Hampton

Police departments don't reflect demographics in Hampton Roads

Is Hampton the best Virginia city for your business?

population icon Population 2020

With 137,148 people, Hampton is the 8th most populated city in the state of Virginia out of 593 cities. But watch out, Hampton, because Portsmouth with 97,915 people and Roanoke with 100,011 people are right behind you.

race icon Race & Ethnicity 2020

The largest Hampton racial/ethnic groups are Black (48.5%) followed by White (36.0%) and Hispanic (6.1%).

income icon Median Income 2019

In 2019, the median household income of Hampton households was $56,287. Hampton households made slightly more than Captains Cove households ($56,146) and Lakeside households ($56,131) . However, 10.6% of Hampton families live in poverty.

age icon Median Age 2019

The median age for Hampton residents is 36.2 years young.


Hampton, demographics va of

Hampton, Virginia

Independent city in Virginia, US

Independent city in Virginia

Hampton, Virginia

City of Hampton
Newport News, Hampton, Portsmouth and Norfolk. Hampton is at the top center.

Newport News, Hampton, Portsmouth and Norfolk. Hampton is at the top center.


From the Sea to the Stars

Location in the State of Virginia

Location in the State of Virginia

Hampton is located in Virginia


Location in Virginia

Show map of Virginia
Hampton is located in the United States


Location in the United States

Show map of the United States
Coordinates: 37°02′06″N76°21′36″W / 37.034946°N 76.360126°W / 37.034946; -76.360126Coordinates: 37°02′06″N76°21′36″W / 37.034946°N 76.360126°W / 37.034946; -76.360126
Country United States
State Virginia
CountyNone (Independent city)
Incorporated (town)1705[1]
Incorporated (city)1849[1]
 • Typecouncil-manager
 • MayorDonnie Tuck(D)[2]
 • Vice MayorJimmy Gray (D)[2]
 • Independent city136.27 sq mi (352.95 km2)
 • Land51.46 sq mi (133.28 km2)
 • Water84.81 sq mi (219.67 km2)  62.3%
Elevation10 ft (3 m)
 • Independent city137,436
 • Estimate 


 • Density2,613.82/sq mi (1,009.21/km2)
 • Metro1,674,498
Time zoneUTC–5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC–4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes

23661, 23663-23669

Area code(s)757, 948 (planned)
FIPS code51-35000[5]
GNIS feature ID1495650[6]
British invade Hampton during the War of 1812[7]

Hampton () is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 137,438;[8] in 2019, it was estimated to be 134,510.[8] Hampton is included in the Hampton RoadsMetropolitan Statistical Area (officially known as the Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC MSA) which is the 37th largest in the United States, with a total population of 1,729,114.[9] This area, known as "America's First Region", also includes the independent cities of Chesapeake, Virginia Beach, Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Suffolk, as well as other smaller cities, counties, and towns of Hampton Roads.

Hampton traces its history to the city's Old Point Comfort, the home of Fort Monroe for almost 400 years, which was named by the 1607 voyagers, led by Captain Christopher Newport, who first established Jamestown as an English colonial settlement. Since consolidation in 1952, Hampton has included the former Elizabeth City County and the incorporated town of Phoebus, consolidated by a mutual agreement.

After the end of the American Civil War, historic Hampton University was established opposite from the town on the Hampton River, providing an education for many newly-freed former slaves and for area Native Americans. In the 20th century, the area became the location of Langley Air Force Base, NASALangley Research Center, and the Virginia Air and Space Center. Hampton features many miles of waterfront and beaches.

The city features a wide array of business and industrial enterprises, retail and residential areas, historical sites, and other points of interest, such a NASCAR short track, the oldest Anglican parish in the Americas (1610), and a moated, six-sided, historical bastion fort.


See also: Timeline of Hampton, Virginia

Native Americans settled in present-day Hampton before 10,000 BCE. In the early 1600s, the Tidewater region was populated by the Powhatan peoples who called the lands Tsenacommacah. The Powhatan Chiefdom was made up of over 30 tribes numbering an estimated 25,000 people before the arrival of English colonists.[10][11][12]

Colonial history[edit]

In December 1606, three ships carrying men and boys left England on a mission sponsored by a proprietary company. Led by Captain Christopher Newport, they sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to North America. After a long voyage, they first landed at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay on the south shore at a place they named Cape Henry (for Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the elder son of their king).

During the first few days of exploration, they identified the site of Old Point Comfort (which they originally named "Point Comfort") as a strategic defensive location at the entrance to the body of water that became known as Hampton Roads. This is formed by the confluence of the Elizabeth, Nansemond, and James rivers. The latter is the longest river in Virginia.

Weeks later, on May 14, 1607, they established the first permanent English settlement in the present-day United States about 25 miles (40 km) further inland from the Bay which became the site of fortifications during the following 200 years.

Slightly south, near the entrance to Hampton River, the colonists seized the Native American community of Kecoughtan under Virginia's Governor, Sir Thomas Gates. The colonists established their own small town, with a small Anglican church (known now as St. John's Episcopal Church), on July 9, 1610. This came to be known as part of Hampton. (With Jamestown having been abandoned in 1699, Hampton claims to be the oldest continuously occupied English settlement in the United States).[13] Hampton was named for Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, an important leader of the Virginia Company of London, for whom the Hampton River, Hampton Roads and Southampton County were also named. The area became part of Elizabeth Cittie [sic] in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, and was included in Elizabeth City County when it was formed in 1643. By 1680, the settlement was known as Hampton, and it was incorporated as a town in 1705 and became the seat of Elizabeth City County.

In the latter part of August 1619, the White Lion, a privateer captained by John Colyn Jope and sailing under a Dutch letter of marque, delivered approximately 20 enslaved Africans, from the present-day region of Angola to Point Comfort. They had been removed by its crew from a Portuguese slave ship, the "São João Bautista". These were the first recorded slaves from Africa in the Thirteen Colonies.[14][15]John Rolfe, the widower of Pocahontas, wrote in a letter that he was at Point Comfort and witnessed the arrival of the first Africans. The Bantu from Angola were considered indentured servants, but in effect, were to be slaves. Two of the first Africans to arrive were Anthony and Isabella. Their child, the first of African descent born in North America, was born baptized January 1624.[citation needed]

Post-colonial history[edit]

In 1813, the fort was captured again by the British as part of the War of 1812. Shortly after the war ended, the US Army built a more substantial stone facility at Old Point Comfort. It was called Fort Monroe in honor of President James Monroe. The new installation and adjacent Fort Calhoun (on a man-made island across the channel) were completed in 1834. Fort Monroe is the largest stone fort ever built in the United States.[17]

Fort Monroe, Hampton and the surrounding area played several important roles during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although most of Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands. It became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies and later the Emancipation Proclamation. After the War, former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis was imprisoned in the area now known as the Casemate Museum on the base.

The ruins of Hampton in 1862

To the northwest of Fort Monroe, the Town of Hampton had the misfortune to be attacked during the American Revolutionary War and burned down during the War of 1812 and the American Civil War. From the ruins of Hampton left by evacuating Confederates in 1861, "Contraband" slaves (formerly owned by Confederates and under a degree of Union protection) built the Grand Contraband Camp, the first self-contained African American community in the United States. A number of modern-day Hampton streets retain their names from that community. The large number of contraband slaves who sought the refuge of Fort Monroe and the Grand Contraband Camp led to educational efforts which eventually included establishment of Hampton University, site of the famous Emancipation Oak.

The original site of the Native American's Kecoughtan Settlement was near the present site of a Hampton Roads Transit facility.[18] To the south of present-day Hampton, a small unrelated incorporated town also named Kecoughtan many years later and also located in Elizabeth City County was annexed by the city of Newport News in 1927. It is now part of that city's East End.

Hampton was incorporated as a city in 1849.[1] On March 30, 1908, Hampton was separated from Elizabeth City County and became an independent city.[19] However, it remained the county seat and continued to share many services with the county. On July 1, 1952, following approval of voters of each locality by referendum, the city of Hampton, the incorporated town of Phoebus and Elizabeth City County merged into the independent city of Hampton.[19] It was the first of a series of political consolidations in the Hampton Roads region during the third quarter of the 20th century.

Modern military history[edit]

Hampton has a rich and extensive 20th-century military history — home of Langley Air Force Base, the nation's first military installation dedicated solely to air power and the home of the U.S. Air Force's 633rd Air Base Wing and 1st and 192nd Fighter Wings. Hampton has been a center of military aviation training, research and development for nearly a hundred years, from early prop planes and Zeppelins to rocket parts and advanced fighters. Its proximity to Norfolk means that Hampton has long been home to many Navy families. Together, many Air Force and Navy families in the Hampton area experienced significant losses in war and peacetime due to family members in combat and peacetime military accidents.

Fort Monroe was an active army base until its decommissioning on September 15, 2011.[20] Shortly after, the fort was named a National Monument by President Barack Obama, on November 1.[21]

Langley AFB during the Vietnam War[edit]

In particular, during the Vietnam War, Langley Air Force Base was a designated 'waiting base' and thousands of Air Force families were transferred to Hampton from all over the world to wait while their husbands and fathers served in Vietnam. Thousands of Navy families associated with Naval bases in Norfolk next door also waited in Hampton during this era. Vietnam was a very high casualty war for Air Force and Navy pilots (some types of planes experienced a 50% casualty rate), and Naval "river rats" who fought on the rivers of the Mekong Delta experienced high casualties as well. There accumulated over time, in the Hampton area, a high concentration of families of unaccounted for wartime casualties.[22] In many cases Hampton-stationed military families of "Missing in Action" or "Prisoner of War" pilots and sailors spent many years in the area waiting to find out what had happened to their missing or captured airmen and sailors.[22][23]


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 136 square miles (350 km2), of which 51 square miles (130 km2) is land and 85 square miles (220 km2) (62.3%) is water.[24]


The old lighthouse at Buckroe Beach was built as a part of the amusement park


Hampton has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa)[25] characteristic of the Southeast United States. The weather in Hampton is temperate and seasonal with hot and humid summers and mild winters.[26] The mean annual temperature is 60.2 °F (15.7 °C), with an average annual snowfall of 6 inches (150 mm) and an average annual rainfall of 47 inches (1,200 mm). The wettest month by average rainfall is August with an average of 2.4 inches of rain falling on 11–12 days, although in March it typically rains on more days with 2.3 inches of rain falling in 12 to 13 days. The hottest day on record was August 1, 1980 when the temperature hit 105.1 °F. The lowest recorded temperature of -2.7 °F was recorded on January 21, 1985.[27]

Climate data for Norfolk International Airport, Virginia (1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1874–present[b])
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 84
Mean maximum °F (°C) 72
Average high °F (°C) 50.7
Daily mean °F (°C) 42.2
Average low °F (°C) 33.6
Mean minimum °F (°C) 19
Record low °F (°C) −3
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.41
Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)10.7 9.2 10.9 10.0 11.2 9.7 10.6 10.2 9.4 7.7 8.9 9.9 118.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)1.7 1.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 4.0
Average relative humidity (%) 66.3 65.6 64.6 62.8 68.8 70.6 73.3 75.2 74.4 72.1 68.5 67.0 69.1
Average dew point °F (°C) 27.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours171.5 175.2 229.3 252.8 271.7 280.1 278.3 260.4 231.4 208.3 175.7 160.4 2,695.1
Percent possible sunshine56 58 62 64 62 64 62 62 62 60 57 53 61
Average ultraviolet index2 4 5 7 8 10 9 9 7 5 3 2 6
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[28][29][30]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[31]


Historical population
2019 (est.)134,510[4]−2.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[32]
1790-1960[33] 1900-1990[34]
1990-2000[35] 2010-2019[8]
Age distribution in Hampton

As of the census[36] of 2010, there were 137,436 people, 53,887 households, and 35,888 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,828.0 people per square mile (1,091.9/km2). There were 57,311 housing units at an average density of 1,106.8 per square mile (427.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 49.6% Black or African American, 42.7% White, 2.2% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. 4.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 53,887 households, out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.4% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.02.

The age distribution is 24.2% under the age of 18, 12.6% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males.

Population update: estimated population in July 2002: 145,921 (-0.4% change) Males: 72,579 (49.6%), Females: 73,858 (50.4%) Source

The Census estimate for 2005 shows that the city's population was down slightly to more, 145,579.[37]

The median income for a household in the city was $39,532, and the median income for a family was $46,110. Males had a median income of $31,666 versus $24,578 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,774. About 8.8% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.9% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over.

Arts and culture[edit]

Arts and museums[edit]

Hampton is home to several arts venues and museums dedicated to Hampton's rich history. Notable venues in the city include The American Theatre, the Casemate Museum, the Charles Taylor Visual Arts Center, Hampton History Museum, Hampton University Museum, the Performing & Creative Arts Center, and the Virginia Air & Space Center.

The Hampton Coliseum, a multi-purpose arena built in 1968, serves as a major venue for entertainment acts such as WCW & WWE wrestling, musical concerts from artists such as The Grateful Dead and Phish and various regional sports games from the area. The arena has a seating capacity of 9,800 to 13,800 depending on configuration.[38]


The city is served by the Hampton Public Library. The system began in 1926 as the first free county library in Virginia.[39] Today, the main library includes the main library and three branches.

Points of interest[edit]


The Peninsula Pilots of the Coastal Plain League are a collegiate summer baseball league based in Hampton. The Pilots have been playing at War Memorial Stadium since 1980. The Hampton University Pirates & Lady Pirates compete in the Big South Conference in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision.

High school sports (especially football & basketball) play a large role in the city's sports culture. Sporting stars such as Allen Iverson, Francena McCoroy, and T'erea Brown are from Hampton. The city's stadium, Darling Stadium, serves as the high school football stadium with games usually spread over Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights. The stadium also hosts various track-and-field events.[40]

Additional sports options can be found just outside Hampton. On the collegiate level, the College of William and Mary, Norfolk State University and Old Dominion University offer NCAA Division I athletics. Virginia Wesleyan College and Christopher Newport University also provide sports at the NCAA Division III level.

Professional sports can be found in the area as well. In Norfolk, the Norfolk Tides of the International League and the Norfolk Admirals of the American Hockey League field baseball and hockey teams respectively. In Virginia Beach, the Hampton Roads Piranhas field men's and women's professional soccer teams.[41][42]


Year RepublicanDemocraticThird Parties
202028.0% 18,43070.1%46,2201.9% 1,251
201628.8% 17,90266.3%41,3124.9% 3,063
201228.0% 18,64070.6%46,9661.3% 884
200830.1% 20,47669.1%46,9170.8% 550
200442.0% 23,39957.4%32,0160.6% 326
200040.9% 19,56157.4%27,4901.8% 836
199637.3% 16,59655.0%24,4937.7% 3,418
199238.5% 19,21946.9%23,39514.6% 7,264
198854.9%24,03443.6% 19,1061.6% 678
198458.0%25,53741.3% 18,1800.8% 351
198045.1% 17,02349.0%18,5175.9% 2,225
197641.7% 15,02153.3%19,2025.1% 1,825
197265.5%21,89731.9% 10,6482.7% 890
196832.3% 10,53234.7%11,30833.0% 10,766
196439.2% 8,73160.8%13,5420.1% 15
196051.5%7,62348.2% 7,1330.4% 52
195657.2%7,43239.3% 5,1083.4% 443
195252.5%5,50547.2% 4,9460.3% 30
194830.0% 37158.9%72711.1% 137
194423.1% 29776.7%9870.2% 3
194018.0% 21581.7%9750.3% 4
193616.4% 19083.6%9710.1% 1
193227.1% 29471.2%7721.7% 18
192846.9% 54453.1%615
192421.0% 12976.6%4712.4% 15
192019.8% 15278.4%6011.8% 14
191613.7% 5685.4%3501.0% 4
19123.3% 1388.5%3538.3% 33


The city uses a council-manager government, with Donnie Tuck serving as mayor, Mary Bunting serving as the city manager, and six council members serving as representatives to the districts in the city.[44]

As of 2020[update], the Hampton City Council consisted of:

  • Donnie Tuck, Mayor
  • Jimmy Gray, Vice Mayor
  • Chris Bowman, Councilman
  • Eleanor Weston Brown, Councilwoman
  • Steven L. Brown, Councilman
  • Billy Hobbs, Councilman
  • Chris Osby Snead, Councilwoman


Hampton is located in Virginia's 2nd congressional district, served by U.S. Representative Elaine Luria (Democrat) and in Virginia's 3rd congressional district, served by U.S. Representative Robert C. Scott (Democrat).[45]


The main provider of public primary and secondary education is Hampton City Public Schools. There are four high schools – Kecoughtan, Bethel, Phoebus, and Hampton – eighteen K-5 elementary schools, two PK-8 schools, five middle schools, one early childhood center, and one gifted center in the city.[46]

Several private schools are located in the area, including Denbigh Baptist Christian School,[47]Hampton Roads Academy,[48] and Peninsula Catholic High School.[49]

Virginia School for the Deaf, Blind and Multi-Disabled at Hampton, operated by the State of Virginia, was formerly in Hampton.

Colleges and universities[edit]

The city contains Hampton University and Thomas Nelson Community College. Other nearby universities in the Hampton Roads region include Christopher Newport University, Old Dominion University, Norfolk State University, and The College of William and Mary.[50][51][52][53][54][55]


Hampton's daily newspaper is the Newport News-based Daily Press. Other papers include Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot, Port Folio Weekly, the New Journal and Guide, and the Hampton Roads Business Journal.[56]Coastal Virginia Magazine[57] serves as a bi-monthly regional magazine for Hampton and the Hampton Roads area.[58]Hampton Roads Times serves as an online magazine for all the Hampton Roads cities and counties. Hampton is served by a variety of radio stations on the AM and FM dials, with towers located around the Hampton Roads area.[59]

Hampton is also served by several television stations. The Hampton Roads designated market area (DMA) is the 42nd largest in the U.S. with 712,790 homes (0.64% of the total U.S.).[60] The major network television affiliates are WTKR-TV 3 (CBS), WAVY-TV 10 (NBC), WVEC-TV 13 (ABC), WGNT 27 (CW), WTVZ 33 (MyNetworkTV), WVBT 43 (Fox), and WPXV 49 (ION Television). The Public Broadcasting Service station is WHRO-TV 15. Hampton residents also can receive independent stations, such as WSKY broadcasting on channel 4 from the Outer Banks of North Carolina and WGBS-LD broadcasting on channel 11. Hampton is served by Verizon FiOS and Cox Cable.



Main article: Transportation in Hampton Roads

Roads and Highways[edit]

In the Hampton Roads region, water crossings are a major issue for land-based transportation. The city is fortunate to have a good network of local streets and bridges to cross the various rivers and creeks. Many smaller bridges, especially those along Mercury Boulevard, were named to honor the original NASA astronauts, who had trained extensively at NASA's Langley facilities.

The city is located contiguously to the neighboring independent cities of both Newport News and Poquoson. Many roads and streets are available to travel between them. Likewise, Williamsburg, Yorktown and the counties of James City and York are also located nearby in the Peninsula sub-region, and many roads lead to them.

To reach most of its other neighbors in the South Hampton Roads sub-region, it is necessary to cross the harbor and/or the mouth of the James River. There are 3 major motor vehicle crossings. Among these are the Hampton Roads Bridge–Tunnel (HRBT) and the Monitor–Merrimac Memorial Bridge–Tunnel (MMMBT), each forming part of the Hampton Roads Beltway. The HRBT is located on Interstate 64 near downtown Hampton and the MMMBT is a few miles away on Interstate 664 near downtown Newport News. (These two major interstates converge in Hampton near the Hampton Coliseum). The third crossing option is the James River Bridge, also in Newport News, which connects to Isle of Wight County and the town of Smithfield.

Hampton is also served by several major primary and secondary highways. These notably include U.S. Routes 17, 60 and 258, and Virginia State Routes 134 and 143.

Local and regional public transportation[edit]

The Hampton Transit Center, located close to the downtown area at the intersection of West Pembroke Avenue and King Street, offers a hub for local and intercity public transportation. It hosts HRT buses, Greyhound/Trailways services and taxicabs.

Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) is the local provider of transit service within the city, as well offering a regional bus system with routes to and from seven other cities in Hampton Roads.[61]

Intercity bus service[edit]

Intercity bus service is provided by Greyhound Lines and its Carolina Trailways affiliate. The buses serve the Hampton Transit Center. Low cost curbside intercity bus service is also provided by Megabus, with service to Richmond, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia.


Hampton is served by several Amtrak trains a day, with direct service from Newport News station in nearby Newport News (on Warwick Boulevard just west of Mercury Boulevard) through Williamsburg and Richmond to points along the Northeast Corridor from Washington DC through Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City all the way to Boston. At Richmond, connections can be made for other Amtrak destinations nationwide.


Hampton is served by two commercial airports. Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport (IATA: PHF) is in Newport News, and Norfolk International Airport (IATA: ORF, ICAO: KORF, FAALID: ORF) is across the harbor in Norfolk. Both are along portions of Interstate 64.

The primary airport for the Virginia Peninsula is the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport in Newport News. Originally known as Patrick Henry Field (hence its airline code letters "PHF"), it was built on the site of Camp Patrick Henry, formerly a World War II facility. It is one of the fastest growing airports in the country, and it reported having served 1,058,839 passengers in 2005. The airport recently added a fourth airline carrier, Frontier Airlines, becoming the first new airline to come to the region in over eight years, despite the economic recession conditions. 2010 was to be the busiest year by passenger count in the airport's history.[62]

The larger Norfolk International Airport (often known locally by its code letters "ORF") also serves the region. The airport is near the Chesapeake Bay, along the city limits between Norfolk and Virginia Beach.[63] Seven airlines provide nonstop services to 25 destinations. During 2006, ORF had 3,703,664 passengers take off or land at its facility and 68,778,934 pounds of cargo were processed through its facilities.[64]

The Chesapeake Regional Airport provides general aviation services. It is in South Hampton Roads in the independent city of Chesapeake.[65]

Notable people[edit]

American history
  • James Armistead, America's first African American spy, provided the information to the Continental Army that Cornwallis was headed to Yorktown in 1781. This led to the forced surrender of Cornwallis.
  • Samuel Chapman Armstrong, Union general in American Civil War; founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, later Hampton University
  • James Barron, U.S. Navy commodore, captain of frigate USS Chesapeake.
  • Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, imprisoned in a casemate at Fort Monroe after the American Civil War
  • Evelyn Grubb, POW wife, author, co-founder and National President of the National League of Families[22][66]
  • Mary S. Peake, African American humanitarian; progenitor of Hampton Institute; the first Black teacher in the American Missionary Association
  • Booker Taliaferro Washington (commonly known as Booker T Washington), founder of Tuskegee Institute, educator, author, African-American statesman
  • George Robert Watkins, politician, member of Pennsylvania State Senate and United States Congress
  • George Wythe, classical scholar, first law professor in U.S., mayor of Williamsburg, attorney general of Virginia Colony, Continental Congress member, speaker of the state assembly, a framer of the federal Constitution
  • Robert Nathaniel Dett, notable composer, pianist, choir director, educator, administrator at Hampton Institute; a founder of United Service Organization
  • Steve Earle, popular country-rock musician and songwriter
  • Jeff Parker, experimental jazz and rock guitarist in the Chicago-based post-rock group Tortoise
  • Jerry Roush, vocalist known for his time in Sky Eats Airplane, Of Mice and Men, and Glass Cloud
  • DeVante Swing and Mr. Dalvin, of the R&B group Jodeci
  • Victor Wooten, bassist for the Grammy Award winning "Blu-Bop" group Béla Fleck and the Flecktones
  • Weldon Irvine, composer, pianist
  • DRAM, rapper, artist[67]
  • Roy F. Brissenden, World War II pilot, physicist, aeronautical engineer, mechanical engineer, teacher, inventor, project leader at Hampton, Langley Research Center NACA/NASA
  • Mary Jackson, engineer and mathematician who contributed to America's aeronautics and space programs
  • Katherine Johnson, physicist, space scientist, and mathematician who contributed to America's aeronautics and space programs
  • Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., aeronautical engineer; administrator at Hampton, Langley Research Center NACA / NASA; flight director of the space program
  • Anne Rudloe, U.S. marine biologist
  • Robert Banks, Linebacker/defensive end; national high school player of the year by the Columbus, Ohio Touchdown Club in 1982
  • Tajh Boyd, professional football player
  • Elton Brown, offensive lineman of the Arizona Cardinals
  • Jim Burrow, defensive back for the Green Bay Packers
  • Steve Cardenas, Brazilian jiu-jitsumartial artist & actor who starred as Rocky DeSantos; Red Ape Ninja Ranger and Zeo Ranger III Blue.
  • Jake Cave, outfielder for the Minnesota Twins
  • Ronald Curry, professional football player for the Oakland Raiders, former Hampton High School star football quarterback
  • La'Keshia Frett, former WNBA basketball player; led Phoebus High School to state championship in 1992
  • Shaun Gayle, special teams captain of the 1985 Super Bowl champion Chicago Bears football team, and played with the San Diego Chargers
  • Marques Hagans, quarterback/wide receiver with the St. Louis Rams
  • Chris Hanburger, popular Washington Redskins player in the 1970s and member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame
  • Michael Husted, former professional football player for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, former Hampton High Schoolplacekicker
  • Allen Iverson, former all-star basketball player for the Philadelphia 76ers, member of Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame[68]
  • Jerod Mayo, NFLlinebacker for the New England Patriots
  • Art Price, professional football player for the Atlanta Falcons
  • Dwight Stephenson, professional football player for the Miami Dolphins and member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame
  • John Sturdivant, professional football player
  • Tyrod Taylor, professional football quarterback for the Los Angeles Chargers
  • Mike Tomlin, professional football coach for the Pittsburgh Steelers[69]
  • Jimmy F. Williams, professional football player for the Atlanta Falcons
  • Xavier Adibi, former professional football linebacker

Sister cities[edit]

Hampton has four sister cities:[71][72]

See also[edit]


  1. ^Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^Official records for Norfolk kept January 1874 to December 1945 at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown, and at Norfolk Int'l since January 1946. For more information, see Threadex.


  1. ^ abcd"Hampton History and Facts". City of Hampton, Virginia. Archived from the original on September 26, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
  2. ^ ab"Mayor Donnie Tuck | Hampton, VA - Official Website".
  3. ^"2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  4. ^ ab"Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  5. ^"U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^"US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  7. ^Lossing, Benson (1868). The Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. Harper & Brothers, Publishers. p. 683.
  8. ^ abc"State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  9. ^"Census profile: Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Metro Area". Census Reporter. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  10. ^Stebbins, Sarah J. (April 2012). "Chronology of Powhatan Indian Activity - Historic Jamestowne". National Park Service. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  11. ^"Powhatan | North American Indian confederacy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  12. ^Hedgpeth, Dana (August 3, 2019). "Powhatan and his people: The 15,000 American Indians shoved aside by Jamestown's settlers". Washington Post. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  13. ^Tormey, James (April 2009). How Firm a Foundation. Richmond, Virginia: Diets Press. p. 184. ISBN .
  14. ^"400 years ago, enslaved Africans first arrived in Virginia". History Magazine. August 13, 2019.
  15. ^"Where the Landing of the First Africans in English North America Really Fits in the History of Slavery". Time.
  16. ^"History". Fort Monroe Authority. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
  17. ^"WMCAR - Historic Kecoughtan". Archived from the original on August 27, 2006.
  18. ^ ab July 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^Macaulay, David (September 15, 2011). "Fort Monroe stands down after 188 years of Army service". The Daily Press. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
  20. ^"Presidential Proclamation -- Establishment of the Fort Monroe National Monument". November 1, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
  21. ^ abcJose, Carol, You Are Not Forgotten: A Family's Quest for Truth and the Founding of the National League of Families, New York Vandamere Press; first edition (September 1, 2008). (US), 2008. ISBN 0-918339-71-5, ISBN 978-0-918339-71-3.
  22. ^Video of CSPAN special segment, author Carol Jose speaks about book You Are Not Forgotten on the National League of Families,
  23. ^"US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  24. ^"Humid subtropical climate". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  25. ^"Humid subtropical climate", Wikipedia, July 25, 2020, retrieved August 15, 2020
  26. ^"Hampton, VA Climate". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  27. ^"NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  28. ^"Station: NORFOLK INTL AP, VA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  29. ^"WMO Climate Normals for NORFOLK/INTL, VA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  30. ^"Norfolk, Virginia, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  31. ^"U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  32. ^"Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  33. ^"Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  34. ^"Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000"(PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  35. ^"U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  36. ^"Hampton city QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  37. ^Coliseum, Hampton. "Hampton Coliseum". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  38. ^"Hampton Public Library | Hampton, VA - Official Website". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  39. ^"HCS ATHLETICS". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  40. ^"Norfolk Admirals (AHL)", Wikipedia, April 20, 2020, retrieved August 15, 2020
  41. ^"Norfolk Tides", Wikipedia, July 1, 2020, retrieved August 15, 2020
  42. ^"Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections".
  43. ^"City Council | Hampton, VA - Official Website". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  44. ^"Virginia Senators, Representatives, and Congressional District Maps". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  45. ^"Hampton City Schools". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  46. ^"Denbigh Baptist Christian School - Shaping Hearts and Minds". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  47. ^"Hampton Roads Academy | Private College Preparatory School | Virginia". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  48. ^"Peninsula Catholic High School". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  49. ^"Christopher Newport University". Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  50. ^"William & Mary". Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  51. ^"ODU". Old Dominion University. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  52. ^"Norfolk State University". Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  53. ^"Hampton University".
  54. ^"Welcome to the Peninsula's Community College". Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  55. ^"Hampton Roads News Links". Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  56. ^"Coastal Virginia Magazine". Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  57. ^"Hampton Roads Magazine". Hampton Roads Magazine. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  58. ^"Hampton Roads Radio Links". Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  59. ^Holmes, Gary. "Nielsen Reports 1.1% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2006-2007 SeasonArchived July 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Nielsen Media Research. September 23, 2006. Retrieved on September 28, 2007.
  60. ^Hampton Roads Transit. "- Hampton Roads Transit -". Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  61. ^"Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport". Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Archived from the original on December 4, 2000. Retrieved February 25, 2008.
  62. ^"Norfolk International Airport Mission and History"
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