Annual Bull Sale, Burwell, Nebraska Livestock Exchange on Friday, February 7, 2020, 1:00 p.m., CST.
View the Lots for sale on February 7, 2020
We became seedstock producers because we had become increasingly dissatisfied with the bulls purchased for our commercial herd. Too often the bulls were overly finished, “melted” during the breeding season, were structurally incorrect, and had to be sent to town after one breeding season. We became tired of buying new bulls, year after year. We wanted bulls that would last and produce high quality replacement heifers and feeder calves.
So, we decided to enter the seedstock business.
We began by breeding animals using EPDs and the recommendations of those wellschooled in the EPD system. Again, we were disappointed. The animals produced by “running the numbers” did not survive in the range environment and failed to produce quality replacement females. Sale prices for our feeder calves were, at best, average.
As a result, we determined to learn from history, rather than to create or ignore it. We decided to use as breeding stock those animals that have many generations of high quality progeny. To select genetics that work in the range environment for the cow/calf producer, we studied the great herds. We asked outstanding Angus breeders about their herds, their breeding and their breeding philosophies. The answers were readily forthcoming and are displayed in our herd and these bulls.
These SVR Bulls and their mothers are sired by great sires that have decades and generations of predictable performance. The “old” sires produced animals that meet our criteria and function extraordinarily well on the range and on forage. These older sires are proven, their breeders know what worked, and we have their history. Although moderate in frame, they were thick-bodied animals known for producing high quality carcass progeny.
Emulation cattle provide unrivaled mothering ability, fertility, calving ease,superb teat and udder structure, survivability, adaptability and longevity in the ranch environment. Wye animals, which are original Aberdeen Angus, are highly maternal, transmit calving ease, have excellent carcass quality and marble on grass. Rito/Traveler transmits muscle, adds performance, helps carcass quality and provides gain.
These Sale Bulls demonstrate those qualities, and will transmit them to your herd.
Aberdeen-Angus bulls sell to 24,000gns at Stirling Bull Sales
Next best at 17,000gns was Blelack Bright Lad when Henry Duncan, Whitehall Farms, Kirkmahoe, Dumfries, placed the final bid. He is a son of Tonley Jester Eric and out of Blelack Beautiful Lady.
The reserve male champion, Blelack Kasper, hit 11,000gns being another son of Dual Mine, which sold to D Strachan, East Shawtonhill Farm, Chapelton, Strathaven.
Last to achieve the five figure mark for this home at 10,500gns was Blelack Earthquake when knocked down to Seafield pedigrees, Attwell Farm ltd, Seafield Redditch.
The only other five figure price at 10,500gns came from the trustees of the late Gordon R Brooke, Upper Huntlywood Earlston, managed by John Elliot. He found a new home with David Lindsay, Baldovie, Kingoldrum, by Kirriemuir, Angus.
TO READ THE FULL REPORT OF THIS ARTICLE GET THIS WEEK'S ISSUE OF THE SCOTTISH FARMER, FROM YOUR LOCAL RETAILER OR PURCHASE A SUBSCRIPTION BY CLICKING HERE
We Are A Glen!
Saddle Butte Ranch has become a safe harbor for an endangered species: the Aberdeen Angus! With less than 200 breeding cows in the world that could be authenticated as true Native Scottish Aberdeen Angus, the Rare Breeds Survival Trust in England listed Aberdeen Angus as an endangered breed. Today on Saddle Butte Ranch it is with a feeling of privilege and anticipation that we are developing a herd to become the most important source in the U.S. for this important breed. With the coming calving season we will have 100 Native females.
The Recovery of Aberdeen Angus
In the Scottish glens Angus cattle were developed for over 150 years, father passing to son genetics that were sustainable, free of lethal genes and designed to thrive on grass and to produce consistently desirable carcasses. Since the 1960s cattle have suffered from “scientific” notions of breeding. Breed associations began to promote numerical values to describe the probabilities of increased production in certain lines of genetics. Entrepreneurs recognized the value of promoting specialized genetics. Artificial breeding practices enabled the once isolated farmer the opportunity of trying promising “new” bulls. Every year, the latest bull to try. In a short time beef cattle grew in size and lost their efficiency on grass, their prepotency, and even their purity. Seedstock breeders became more like car salesmen than breeders. Somewhere along the line the phrase, “preservation of the breed”, was dropped from the charter.
The genetics of possibility have not been able to perform in real world environments where beef cows must live. Cattlemen have begun to think about cows in terms of sustainability and efficiency. A few began the search for the old, proven lines of genetics that favor the highest performance that a cow can be capable of on grass. Enter Geordie Soutar of Forfar Scotland.
Geordie grew up familiar with Aberdeen Angus. As a trainee auctioneer he developed his eye. And saw, around 1970, that his countrymen had lost their confidence in the old blood. It was 1995 when Geordie decided to try to find a true native Angus cow. At that time, Bob Anderson, Secretary of the Aberdeen Angus Cattle Society had conducted an exhaustive search for the last of the native cattle. He discovered fewer than forty. Most were old, 16 or 17 years of age.
Using Bob Anderson's list Geordie set out to try to purchase any of these remaining cows. It took Geordie 14 years to finally acquire all the remaining cow families. Geordie bought his first cow, Karen of Boghall. He also met Jeff Ward of the Sinclair Cattle Co. and soon both men were excited about the project of trying to recover these lost genetics.
Had not Geordie started his quest in 1995 all would have been lost. Within two or three years the last of the old cows would have perished. But gradually Geordie bought a few. He bought Ejeta of Templehouse. Then Jipsey Nova and Jipsey Yoko from Jeremy Sharman. Then several Cherry Blossoms. In 2009 he was finally able to buy a Miss Burgess (one of only two left in existence), a Pride of Aberdeen, and a Nell of Albar, which was the oldest recorded family in the Angus breed. That family of cows traced back to a castle not ten miles from where Geordie lived. When Angus were still called “doddies” they were developed into a family at Albar Castle and eventually became known as “the Sherriff's cattle”. By 2009 there were no native cattle left to find. Where once 70-80 Angus families had been carefully developed, now, through Geordie's efforts, just representatives of eight families remained. They were the Ericas (and Eulimas), the Prides, the Kindness Prides, the Jipseys, Nells, the Cherry Blossoms, the Miss Burgesses and the Ruths of Tillyfour.
Geordie and Jeff had to suffer through prohibitive actions associated with BSE and then Foot and Mouth disease before at last they could initiate their plans to develop the old Aberdeen Angus cow in the U.S. More than a 100 embryos were shipped to Jeff Ward and the first calves were born in 2007. Soon thereafter Genex recognized the value of this old blood and purchased an interest in Cortachy Boy, Jipsey Earl, Commander Bond, Cup Bearer and Red Native.
Yet in 2011, as cattlemen bid on bulls at the Sinclair sale in Wyoming, it was abundantly clear that even the first cross with Jipsey Earl had produced bulls worthy of such a legendary past. The Jipsey Earls were perfectly uniform and sold easily. The old blood has again begun to flow. Now, eight years later, these genetics are flourishing at Saddle Butte Ranch.
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HistoryThe Aberdeen Angus breed (or Angus as it is known internationally) was developed in the early part of the 19thCentury from the polled and predominantly black cattle of North east Scotland known locally as "doddies" and "hummlies". As with other breeds of cattle and sheep in Britain, establishment followed improvements in husbandry and transport. The earliest families trace back to the middle of the eighteenth century but it was much later that the Herd Book (1862) and the Society (1879) were founded. The early history of the breed is the history of its breeders, progressive lairds and farmers, of whom three were outstanding.
Hugh Watson became tenant of Keillor in Angus in 1808. He gathered stock widely and produced cattle of outstanding quality and character. Hugh Watson could be considered the founder of the breed, and was instrumental in selecting the best black, polled animals for his herd. His favorite bull was Old Jock, who was born 1842 and sired by Grey-Breasted Jock. Old Jock was given the number "1" in the Scotch Herd Book when it was founded. Another of Watson's notable animals was a cow: Old Granny who was born in 1824 and said to have lived to be 35 years old and produced 29 calves. A vast majority of Angus cattle alive today can trace their pedigrees back to these two animals.
William McCombie came of a family of graziers and in early life was dealing in large numbers of cattle. He took the farm of Tillyfour in Aberdeenshire in 1824 and founded a herd of Keillor blood. His well documented close breeding produced outstanding cattle that he showed in England and France to establish the reputation of the breed.
Sir George Macpherson-Grant returned to his inherited estate at Ballindalloch, on the River Spey, from Oxford in 1861 and took up the refining of our breed that was to be his life's work for almost 50 years. Both McCombie and Macpherson-Grant became Members of Parliament.
By line breeding and selection for type, the early pioneers established in Angus, Aberdeenshire, Speyside and the Laigh of Moray, the greatest of beef breeds. Stock from this area continued to lead the breed well into the 20thcentury while Aberdeen-Angus cattle became spread throughout Scotland, England and Ireland.
Black Angus are now the most popular beef breed of cattle in the United States with 324,266 animals registered in 2005.
CharacteristicsAberdeen Angus cattle are naturally polled and can be black or red in colour although black is the dominant colour, white may occasionally appear on the udder.
They are resistant to harsh weather, undemanding, adaptable, good natured, mature extremely early and have a high carcass yield with nicely marbled meat. Angus are renowned as a carcass breed. They are used widely in crossbreeding to improve carcass quality and milking ability. Angus females calve easily and have good calf rearing ability. They are also used as a genetic dehorner as the polled gene is passed on as a dominant characteristic.
- Calving ease and vigourous, live calves - the Angus cow consistently delivers a calf that hits the ground running, with little assistance required. The Angus mothering instinct is very strong, as is the calf’s instinct to get up and suck within the first few moments after birth.
- Superb mothers with superior milking ability - The Angus cow is renowned for her maternal traits, calving ease and ability to milk producing a calf each year that more than exceeds half her body weight. An Angus mother puts her all into her calf, producing an abundance of milk right up to weaning.
- Early maturity, fertility and stayability - The Angus cow does her job well, whether it’s her first or her fourteenth calf. Stayability (a cow’s continuing ability to bear calves) is more than just a word with Angus – it’s not unusual for 12- and 13-year-old Angus cows to be productive.
- Naturally polled - No dehorning is required with Angus cattle as they carry a highly heritable, natural polled gene. Horns can cause bruising and tearing and good animal care is another reason to choose Angus.
- No cancer eye or sunburned udders - The dark skin and udders of red and black Angus cattle mean that sunburned udders are rarely a problem. Similarly, cancer eye is not prevalent in Angus cattle.
- Adaptable to all weather conditions - Angus thrive under all conditions with a minimum of maintenance.
- Superior feed conversion - A recent study of crossbred cow types demonstrated that Angus-cross were among the most efficient, providing higher net returns on investment.
- Natural marbling for tasty, tender beef - The market is calling for carcasses with more marbling in order to satisfy consumer demand. The heritability of marbling is moderately high. The correlation between marbling and tenderness is also moderately high so when cattle producers select for marbling, tenderness improves. Using Angus cattle with their superior marbling ability opens the door to improved beef tenderness and increased consumer acceptance of beef
- Preferred carcass size and quality - Research demonstrates that Angus sires can be selected to produce progeny that have an increased ability to grade AAA without compromising feed efficiency or animal growth – and without increasing yield grade at the expense of carcass quality.
ComparativeTrials in northern and southern Australia have shown that Angus cattle are early finishing with good growth, eye muscle and yield. CRC crossbreeding research in northern Australia over Brahman cows shows that Angus have more marbling and the highest MSA eating quality results when compared to other breed crosses.
In the Southern Crossbreeding Project conducted by South Australian and Victorian researchers, Angus cross calves had the lowest birth weights, similar growth to weaning and in the feedlot, finished earliest and produced the most marbling.
DistributionAngus are a truly international breed, they are the dominant breed in the USA, Canada, Argentina, New Zealand and Australia.
In Australia one in four cattle registered are Angus plus at bull sales, 30% of cattle sold are Angus.
Angus have also spread to South Africa, Brazil, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Germany and of course they still remain popular in Britain.
References(the above information was cited from the following sites)
Bull sale for angus aberdeen
We are very committed to developing regenerative management practices alongside our Higher Level Stewardship Scheme which has been in place for 8 years. The breeding herd spends 9 months of the year including calving based on the Great Fen Project which is all around our base here at Wildfell Farm. It is a 50 year project and has been running for just under 20 years. It is designed to restore 10 000 acres of peat soils known as fen land back to how it was before drainage and intensive agriculture using wet grassland grazed by our cattle and sheep and at the same time providing fantastic habitat for many species of birds, mammals and insects.
This will in time join up 2 very important Nature Reserves, Holme Fen and Woodwalton National Nature Reserves. So far, about 5000 acres is under this management . The whole area acts as a huge carbon sink between the cities of Peterborough and Cambridge on either side of it. In one particular area we graze animals in close cooperation with the manager to create a suitable habitat for the rare Fen Violet.
We stock less than 1 cow and calf per hectare and our own calculations show that we are actually carbon negative meaning that the grassland absorbs more carbon dioxide than is produced by our cattle. It is virtually organic with no artificial fertilizers or pesticides in use with the exception of controlling thistles and other noxious weeds if required. The cattle spend their lives outside and as a result are very healthy so our use of medicines including antibiotics is very low.
On our own Wildfell Farm we employ a system of mob grazing to simulate the action of wild herbivores such as buffalo in the US going back 200 years . We graze a lot of animals in a small area then they move off after 2-3 days to allow to grass and herbs to regenerate for up to 30 days before we graze again. When we took it on in 2009 it had been very intensively farmed growing potatoes, onions, sugar beet, carrots and cereals. The soil was in very poor shape so we started a programme of application of compost made from kerbside green waste which is processed at a site only a mile from us. We have applied hundreds of tonnes of the stuff and as a result the organic matter in the soil has doubled over the past 11 years. We have also applied recycled gypsum - plasterboard which also enhances soil structure. Earthworm populations have shot up and the soil is much easier to cultivate. We introduced livestock in 2014 to create a mixed farm so that grass and herb grazing could provide yet more organic matter to improve soil health, give it a break from cultivation and allow even more soil microbes to develop.
We grow lucerne which requires no nitrogen fertilizer, to produce a high protein feed which when mixed together with fodder beet which we also grow produces a perfect diet for growing cattle. The breeding herd spends the winter on the free draining fields at Wildfell Farm grazing fodder beet with some silage. We do not use any feed at all which is imported and in fact it is all grown either on the farms here or from within a 10 mile radius. We are not vegan yet our cows and sheep are. They convert grass which we cannot digest into healthy beef and lamb whilst playing a major part in managing some very special habitats here in Cambridgeshire.
We are members of the Aberdeen Angus Cattle Society, the British and Australian Waygu Associations, the Norfolk Horn Breeder Group and the Lleyn Sheep Association. We are in TB4 area, Red Tractor and BVD accredited and are members of the Biobest HiHealth scheme
Stock for sale
Oliver Miniature Acres
Witts End Jade is a registered Purebred Lowline (Aberdeen) Angus heifer that was born 7-28-21. She is out of AWR Miss Joy 13E and 3B Shoman. This beautiful little heifer is for sale at Witts End, located near Jacksonville TX. He will be fully weaned, vaccinated and dewormed prior to pick up. Please Contact Us or call/text for more info.
$1800 or $450 Deposit and $1350 Due at Pickup
Witts End Wesson is a Registered Purebred Bull/Steer calf that was born 7-7-21. He is out of a really short cow, AWL Coopers Texas Lady and 3B Shoman. This handsome little bull calf is for sale at Witts End, located near Jacksonville TX. He will be fully weaned, vaccinated and dewormed prior to pick up. Please Contact Us or call/text for more info.
$1000 or $250 Deposit and $750 Due at Pickup
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Scottish breed of beef cattle
"Black Angus" redirects here. For the steakhouse, see Black Angus Steakhouse.
The Aberdeen Angus, sometimes simply Angus, is a Scottishbreed of small beef cattle. It derives from cattle native to the counties of Aberdeen, Banff, Kincardine and Forfar (now Angus) in north-eastern Scotland.: 96
The Angus is naturally polled and solid black or red, although the udder may be white.
The cattle have been exported to many countries of the world; there are large populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South America and the United States, where in 2017 it was the most numerous beef cattle breed. In some of those countries it has been bred to be taller than the native Scottish stock.
Its conservation status worldwide is "not at risk";: 143 in the United Kingdom the original Native Aberdeen Angus – cattle not influenced by cross-breeding with imported stock – is listed by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust as "at risk".
Aberdeen Angus cattle have been recorded in north-eastern Scotland since at least the sixteenth century. For some time before the 1800s, the hornless cattle in Aberdeenshire and Angus were called Angus doddies.
In 1824, William McCombie of Tillyfour, later the Member of Parliament for West Aberdeenshire, began to improve the stock and is regarded today as the father of the breed. Many local names emerged, including doddies or hummlies.
The breed was officially recognised in 1835, and was initially registered together with the Galloway in the Polled Herd Book.: 96 A society was formed in 1879. The cattle became commonplace throughout the British Isles in the middle of the twentieth century.
As stated in the fourth volume of the Herd Book of the UK's Angus, this breed was introduced to Argentina in 1879 when "Don Carlos Guerrero" imported one bull and two cows for his Estancia "Charles" located in Juancho, Partido de General Madariaga, Provincia de Buenos Aires. The bull was born on 19 April 1878; named "Virtuoso 1626" and raised by Colonel Ferguson. The cows were named "Aunt Lee 4697" raised by J. James and "Cinderela 4968" raised by R. Walker and were both born in 1878, on 31 January and 23 April respectively.
Angus cattle were first introduced to Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in the 1820s, and to the southern mainland in 1840. The breed is now found in all Australian states and territories with 62,000 calves registered with Angus Australia in 2010.
In 1876 William Brown, a professor of agriculture and then superintendent of the experimental farm at Guelph, Ontario, was granted permission by the government of Ontario to purchase Aberdeen Angus cattle for the Ontario Agricultural College. The herd comprised a yearling bull, Gladiolus, and a cow, Eyebright, bred by the Earl of Fife and a cow, Leochel Lass 4th, bred by R.O. Farquharson. On 12 January 1877, Eyebright gave birth to a calf, sired by Sir Wilfrid. It was the first to be born outside of Scotland. The OAC went on to import additional bulls and cows, eventually began selling Aberdeen Angus cattle in 1881.
On 17 May 1873, George Grant brought four Angus bulls, without any cows, to Victoria, Kansas. These were seen as unusual as the normal American cattle consisted of Shorthorns and Longhorns, and the bulls were used only in crossbreeding. However, the farmers noticed the good qualities of these bulls and afterwards, many more cattle of both sexes were imported.
On 21 November 1883, the American Angus Association was founded in Chicago, Illinois. The first herd book was published on March 1885. At this time both red and black animals were registered without distinction. However, in 1917 the Association barred the registering of red and other coloured animals in an effort to promote a solid black breed.
The Red Angus Association of America was founded in 1954 by breeders of Red Angus cattle. It was formed because the breeders had had their cattle struck off the herd book for not conforming to the changed breed standard regarding colour.
A separate breed was cross bred in Germany called the German Angus. It is a cross between the Angus and several different cattle such as the German Black Pied Cattle, Gelbvieh, and Fleckvieh. The cattle are usually larger than the Angus and appear in black and red colours.
Because of their native environment, the cattle are very hardy and can survive the Scottish winters, which are typically harsh, with snowfall and storms. Cows typically weigh 550 kilograms (1,210 lb) and bulls weigh 850 kilograms (1,870 lb). Calves are usually born smaller than is acceptable for the market, so crossbreeding with dairy cattle is needed for veal production. The cattle are naturally polled and black in colour. They typically mature earlier than other native British breeds such as the Hereford or North Devon. However, in the middle of the 20th century a new strain of cattle called the Red Angus emerged. The United States does not accept Red Angus cattle into herd books, while the UK and Canada do. Except for their colour genes, there is no genetic difference between black and red Angus, but they are regarded as different breeds in the US. However, there have been claims that black angus are more sustainable to cold weather, though unconfirmed.
The cattle have a large muscle content and are regarded as medium-sized. The meat is very popular in Japan for its marbling qualities.
There are four recessive defects that can affect calves worldwide. A recessive defect occurs when both parents carry a recessive gene that will affect the calf. One in four calves will show the defect even when both parents carry the defective gene. The four recessive defects in the Black Angus breed that are currently managed with DNA tests are arthrogryposis multiplex (AM), referred to as curly calf, which lowers the mobility of joints; neuropathic hydrocephalus (NH), sometimes known as water head, which causes an enlarged malformed skull; contractural arachnodactyly (CA), formerly referred to by the name of "fawn calf syndrome", which reduces mobility in the hips; and dwarfism, which affects the size of calves. Both parents need to carry the genes for a calf to be affected with one of these disorders. Because of this, the American Angus Association will remove the carrier cattle from the breed in an effort to reduce the number of cases.
Between 2008 and 2010, the American Angus Association reported worldwide recessive genetic disorders in Angus cattle. It has been shown that a small minority of Angus cattle can carry osteoporosis. A further defect called notomelia, a form of polymelia ("many legs") was reported in the Angus breed in 2010.
The main use of Angus cattle is for beef production and consumption. The beef can be marketed as superior due to its marbled appearance. This has led to many markets, including Australia, Japan and the United Kingdom to adopt it into the mainstream. Angus cattle can also be used in crossbreeding to reduce the likelihood of dystocia (difficult calving), and because of their dominant polled gene, they can be used to crossbreed to create polled calves.
- ^ abBarbara Rischkowsky, Dafydd Pilling (editors) (2007). List of breeds documented in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources, annex to The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome: Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9789251057629. Archived 23 June 2020.
- ^ abcdeBreed data sheet: Aberdeen-Angus / United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Cattle). Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2021.
- ^ abcWatchlist overview. Kenilworth, Warwickshire: Rare Breeds Survival Trust. Accessed September 2021.
- ^ abValerie Porter, Lawrence Alderson, Stephen J.G. Hall, D. Phillip Sponenberg (2016). Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding (sixth edition). Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 9781780647944.
- ^ abcNative Aberdeen Angus. Kenilworth, Warwickshire: Rare Breeds Survival Trust. Accessed September 2021.
- ^"Frequently asked questions about the world's largest beef breed registry". American Angus Association. 11 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- ^"Britannic Rare Breeds – Angus Cattle". Britannic Rare Breeds. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- ^"Oklahoma State University Red Angus breed profile".
- ^"The Cattle Site – Angus Breeds". The Cattle Site. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- ^Historia de la Cabaña Charles de Guerrero, criadora de Angus desde 1879Archived 8 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- ^"Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ^"First Herd of Aberdeen-Angus Established by OAC in 1876". Kitchener-Waterloo Record (Microfilm). 6 March 1954. p. 2.
- ^ abBurke, Tom; Kurt Schaff; Rance Long (2004) . "The Birth of the Breed". Angus Legends: Volume 1. p. 17.
- ^American Angus Association. "Angus History". angus.org. Archived from the original on 24 September 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
- ^ abRed Angus Association of America. "History of Red Angus". redangus.org. Archived from the original on 24 September 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
- ^"German Angus cattle information". Interboves. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- ^ abRBST. "Aberdeen Angus (Native)". Factsheet. Kenilworth, Warwickshire: Rare Breeds Survival Trust. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- ^"Encyclopædia Britannica – Cattle Breeds". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- ^ abc"Red Angus History"(PDF). p. 2. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- ^ ab"New South Wales Agriculture – Angus cattle". Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- ^Denholm, Laurence. "Congenital contractural arachnodactyly ('fawn calf syndrome') in Angus cattle"(PDF). NSW Department of Trade and Investment PrimeFact 1015 May 2010.
- ^Vidler, Adam, Defects on rise as gene pool drains, p. 63, The Land, Rural Press, North Richmond, NSW
- ^Another genetic defect affects Angus cattle Retrieved on 29 May
- ^"American Angus Association". Angus.org. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- ^Whitlock, Brian K. "Heritable Birth Defects in Angus Cattle"(PDF). Appliedreprostrategies.com. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- ^"Denholm L et al(2010) Polymelia (supernumerary limbs) in Angus calves".
- ^"Angus". Cattle Today. Archived from the original on 17 October 2006. Retrieved 29 October 2006.