English Cocker Spaniel
The spaniel family is one of the largest groups of dogs, and one of the most specialized. The English Cocker Spaniel is one of the land spaniels. The land spaniels consisted of larger spaniels that were better for springing game, and smaller spaniels that were better for hunting woodcock. These different sizes appeared in the same litters and were essentially two variations of the same breed. Only in were the two sizes considered separate breeds, with the smaller size (under 25 lb) designated as the Cocker Spaniel. In fact, because both breeds shared the same gene pool, they still share many of the same hunting talents.
In , the weight limit was abolished. Cocker Spaniels became extremely popular in England, but American breeders strove to change the breed in ways that traditional English Cocker Spaniel enthusiasts objected to. English and American Cocker Spaniels were shown together until , when English Cocker Spaniel Club of America was formed and the English Cocker received status as a separate variety. The English Cocker Spaniel Club discouraged the interbreeding of the American and English Cockers, and in the English Cocker was designated a separate breed.
After the breeds were separated, the American Cocker eclipsed the English in popularity—but only in America. Throughout the rest of the world, the English Cocker is by far the more popular of the two breeds and is known simply as the Cocker Spaniel. It is one of the most successful show dogs and popular pets of all breeds in Great Britain.
English Cocker Spaniel
The English Cocker Spaniel is a breed of gun dog. It is noteworthy for producing one of the most varied numbers of pups in a litter among all dog breeds. The English Cocker Spaniel is an active, good-natured, sporting dog standing well up at the withers and compactly built. There are "field" or "working" cockers and "house" cockers. It is one of several varieties of spaniel and is the foundation of its American cousin, the American Cocker Spaniel. The English Cocker is closer to the working-dog form of the Field Spaniel and the English Springer Spaniel.
Outside the US, the breed is usually known simply as the Cocker Spaniel, as is the American Cocker Spaniel within the US. The word cocker is commonly held to stem from their use to hunt woodcock. The breed can have litters of anywhere from 3–12 puppies.
Spaniel type dogs have been found in art and literature for almost years. Initially, spaniels in England were divided among land spaniels and water spaniels. The differentiation among the spaniels that led to the breeds that we see today did not begin until the midth century. During this time, the land spaniels became a bit more specialised and divisions among the types were made based upon weight. According to the Encyclopedia of Rural Sports, Cockers were 12–20lb (–9kg). At this time it was not uncommon for Cockers and Springers to come from the same litter. Even a puppy from a "Toy" sized lineage could grow to be a springer.
There is no indication from these early sources that spaniels were used to retrieve game. Rather they were used to drive the game toward the guns.
During the s and s, other types of Cockers were recorded. There were Welsh Springer Spaniels and Devonshire Cockers. Additionally, small dogs from Sussex Spaniel litters were called Cockers. In the first stud books were published by the newly formed kennel club. Any spaniel under 25lb (11kg) was placed in the Cocker breeding pool, however the Welsh Cocker was reclassified as a Springer in due to its larger size and shorter ear. "in those days only those dogs up to a hard day’s work and sensible specimens were allowed to live, as absolute sporting purposes were about their only enjoyment and dog shows were hardly heard of".
The sport of conformation showing began in earnest among spaniels after the Spaniel Club was formed in When showing, the new Springer and Cocker, both were in the same class until The Spaniel Club created breed standards for each of the types. The Kennel Club separated the two types eight years later. Since then, the Springer and Cocker enthusiasts have bred in the separate traits that they desired. Today, the breed differ in more ways than weight alone.
At Crufts, the English Cocker Spaniel has been the most successful breed in winning Best in Show, winning on a total of seven occasions between and , with wins in , , , , , and In addition, the breed make up three of the four winners who have won the title on more than one occasion with all three coming from H.S. Lloyd's Ware kennel. Due to World War II, the English Cocker Spaniel managed to be the only breed to have won the title between and , although the competition was only held on four occasions during that period. The most recent best in show was Sh. Ch. Canigou Cambrai in 
In the late 19th century with the increase in popularity of dog shows and the creation of standards for various breeds, the Spaniel family began to split into various different breeds. A group of enthusiasts decided to create a large black spaniel breed. Four dogs would act as progenitors for this new breed, of which two were Cocker Spaniels, one was a Cocker Spaniel/English Water Spaniel cross and one was a Norfolk Spaniel. This new breed was named the Field Spaniel, and was recognised by the Kennel Club in 
American Cocker Spaniel
The American Cocker Spaniel was developed from the English Cocker Spaniel in the 19th century to retrieve quail and woodcock. They were originally divided from the English Cocker solely on a size basis, but were bred over the years for different specific traits. The two Cocker Spaniels were shown together in America until , when the English Cocker received status as a separate breed. The American Kennel Club granted a separate breed designation for the English Cocker Spaniel in  The American breed has a shorter snout, is more likely to get ear infections, and is groomed differently from the English Cocker.
The English Cocker Spaniel is a sturdy, compact, well-balanced dog. It has a characteristic expression showing intelligence and alertness. Its eyes should be dark and its lobular ears should reach "a bit past" the tip of the nose when pulled forward. Today, a significant difference in appearance exists between field-bred and conformation show-bred dogs. The Cocker's tail is customarily docked in North America. In countries where docking is legal, the tail is generally docked at about 4–5inches (10–13cm) in field-bred dogs while show dogs are generally docked closer to the body. Docking is now illegal in Australia and South Africa. In England and Wales, docking can only be carried out on dogs where the owners have proved that the dogs will be used as working or shooting dogs.
The breed standard indicates that the males of the breed are on average between and 16 inches (39 and 41cm) at the withers with the females a little smaller, growing to between 15 and inches (38 and 39cm). Both males and females of the breed weigh approximately 13– kilograms (29–32lb).American Cocker Spaniels are smaller, with the males being on average between and inches ( and cm), and females again being smaller on average at between and inches (34 and 37cm), both weighing approximately 11–13 kilograms (24–29lb). The closely related English Springer Spaniels are larger than either types of cockers, growing to between 19 and inches ( and cm) for the females, and and 20 inches ( and cm) for the males, and weighing between 23 and 25 kilograms (51 and 55lb).
The English Cocker Spaniel is similar to the English Springer Spaniel and at first glance the only major difference is the larger size of the Springer. However English Cockers also tend to have longer, and lower-set ears than English Springers. In addition Springers also tend to have a longer muzzle, their eyes are not as prominent and the coat is less abundant.
Breed standards restrict all breeds of dogs to certain colours for the purposes of conformation showing (dependent on country). For example, the breed standard of the United Kingdom's Kennel Club states that in solid colours, no white is allowed except for a small amount on the chest, and the American Kennel Club has standards for features including the expression, neck, topline, and body. In working Cockers, breeders value working ability over the color of the dog.
They come in solid (or "self"), parti-coloured, and roan types of markings. Solid dogs have no or very little white. Parti-coloured dogs have spots or patches of colour on a white dog. Parti-coloured dogs can have freckles of color on their nose and legs called "ticking." Roan is an extreme version of ticking and consists of the white dog parts of a dog being speckled with the same colour as the solid patches. Roan puppies are born white with coloured patches and the white becomes roan as they grow up, similar to the spots on Dalmatians.
Solid English Cocker colours can come in black, liver/brown, red/golden with black or brown pigmentation, and Parti-coloured cockers come in blue roan, liver roan, orange roan with black or brown pigmentation, lemon roan with black or brown pigmentation, black and white ticked, liver and white ticked, orange and white ticked with black or brown pigmentation, lemon and white ticked with black or brown pigmentation, black and white, liver and white with brown pigmentation, orange and white with black or brown pigmentation, lemon and white with black or brown pigmentation. All of these colors can also have Tan-points, although you probably won't see it on any red, gold, or lemon Cocker because it will blend in.
Of the solid colours, sable is considered rare and controversial, and is classified by some countries as being a type of parti-colour on account of its mixed hair shafts. While some have claimed this colour is from a cross with a different breed, geneticists have discovered English Cocker sable is unique to this breed. In addition, a silver/ash colour, usually associated with the Weimaraner breed of dog, is considered genetically possible but is yet to be recorded by the United Kingdom's Kennel Club. Of the roan varieties, lemon roan with a light brown pigmentation is the most recessive of all the roans. Plain white Cockers are rarely born, and are thought to be more prone to deafness than those with more pigmentation. As such they are generally not encouraged in the breed.
A light Blue Roan and Tan English Cocker Spaniel
Orange and white Cocker Spaniel
Young Blue Roan Working Strain English Cocker Spaniel
Cockers are compassionate, determined, kind, intelligent, athletic, alert and resilient and make great family pets. The breed does not like being alone, and will bond strongly to an individual person in a family, usually the one who feeds it. Known for optimism, intelligence and adaptability, the breed is extremely loyal and affectionate. The English Cocker Spaniel has a cheerful nature. They rank 18th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of excellent working/obedience intelligence. Due to the breed's happy disposition and continuously wagging tail, it has been given the nickname "merry cocker". They can also be dominant but loyal to their companion.
With a good level of socialisation at an early age, Cocker Spaniels can get along well with people, children, other dogs and other pets. This breed seems to have a perpetually wagging tail and prefers to be around people; it is not best suited to the backyard alone. Cockers can be easily stressed by loud noises and by rough treatment or handling. When trained with a soft hand and plentiful rewards, the Cocker Spaniel will be an obedient and loving companion with a happy, cheerful nature.
English Cocker Spaniels in the UK, USA and Canada have an average lifespan of 11 to 12 years; this is a typical longevity for purebred dogs, but a little less than most other breeds of their size. The English Cocker Spaniel typically lives about a year longer than the smaller American Cocker Spaniel.
In a UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (30%), old age (17%), cardiac (9%), and "combinations" (7%).
In and USA/Canada Health Surveys, the leading causes of death were old age (40%) and cancer (22%).
Common health issues with English Cockers are bite problems, skin allergies, shyness, cataracts, deafness (affecting % of the dogs of this breed), aggression towards other dogs, and benign tumours.
Some uncommon health issues that can also have an effect on English Cocker Spaniels include canine hip dysplasia, patellar luxation, canine dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart murmurs. Hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip joint which is the most common cause of canine arthritis in the hips. Patellar Lunation, also known as luxating patella, refers to the dislocation of the kneecap. Canine dilated cardiomyopathy is an adult onset condition which occurs when the heart muscle is weak and does not contract properly. It can lead to congestive heart failure, which is where fluid accumulates in the lungs, chest, abdominal cavities, or under the skin. Dilated cardiomyopathy is often accompanied by abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias which can complicate treatment. Cocker Spaniels can present with a nutritional form of dilated cardiomyopathy that is associated with low blood concentrations of the amino acid taurine. This form of dilated cardiomyopathy is in many cases reversible if the dog receives taurine supplementation.
Rage syndrome is most often associated with the Show Cocker Spaniel breed, although, cases have been found in other breeds and cases are relatively rare even within the Cocker Spaniel breed. Rage syndrome is described as when a dog attacks suddenly and often savagely, without any warning and during the attack the dog often has a glazed look and appears to be unaware of its surroundings. Rage Syndrome can affect any and all breeds. Though not a common ailment, studies have found it is more common in solid coloured Cockers than in parti-colours and also more common in darker coloured Cockers than lighter coloured Cockers, being most common in solid gold and black coloured spaniels. Their health issues are typical for a purebred dog breed; however they are closely associated with rage syndrome even though cases are really quite rare. Rage syndrome cannot be accurately predicted and can only be diagnosed by EEG or genetic testing and these tests are not conclusive.
A link between coat colour and temperament has been proposed. This link could be the colour pigment melanin, which is biochemically similar to chemicals that act as transmitters in the brain. A study made by the University of Cambridge involving over 1, Cocker Spaniel households throughout Britain concluded that solid colour Cockers were more likely to be aggressive in 12 out of 13 situations. Red/golden Cockers were shown to be the most aggressive of all, in situations involving strangers, family members, while being disciplined, and sometimes for no apparent reason. A study by Spanish researchers at the Autonomous University of Barcelona revealed a similar link between golden Cockers and aggression. Males were also more likely to be aggressive. The study found the English Cocker Spaniel to have the highest level of owner- and stranger- directed aggression compared to other breeds.
This breed, like many others with origins as working dogs, has some genetic lines that focus on working-dog skills and other lines that focus on ensuring that the dog's appearance conforms to a breed standard; these are referred to as the "working" (or "field-bred") and "conformation" strains, respectively. After World War II, Cocker Spaniels bred for pets and for the sport of conformation showing increased enormously in popular appeal, and, for a while, was the most numerous Kennel Club registered breed. This popularity increased the view that all Cockers were useless as working dogs. However, for most dogs this is untrue, as even some show-bred Cockers have retained their working instinct.
Today, this breed is experiencing a resurgence in usage as a working and hunting dog. Dogs from working lines are noticeably distinct in appearance. As is the case with the English Springer Spaniel, the working type has been bred exclusively to perform in the field as a hunting companion. Their coat is shorter and ears less pendulous than the show-bred type. Although registered as the same breed, the two strains have diverged significantly enough that they are rarely crossed. The dogs that have dominated the hunt test, field trial and hunting scene in the United States are field-bred dogs from recently imported English lines. Working-dog lines often have physical characteristics that would prevent them from winning in the show ring. This is a result of selecting for different traits than those selected by show breeders. The longer coat and ears, selected for the show ring, are an impediment in the field. Cuban authorities train and use English Cocker Spaniels as sniffer dogs to check for drugs or food products in passengers' baggage at Cuban airports.
A field-bred cocker spaniel is first and foremost an upland flushing dog. In performing this task there are some skills the dog must be trained to perform.
- Hup This is the traditional command to sit and stay. To be an effective hunter the dog must comply with this command absolutely. When this command is given, the dog can be given direction called to the handler. The ability to hup a dog actively working a running bird allows the handler and any gunners to keep up without having to run.
- Retrieve to Hand The majority of hunters and all hunt test or field trial judges require that a dog deliver a bird to hand, meaning that a dog will hold the bird until told to give it to the hunter directly.
- Quarter Dogs must work in a pattern in front of the hunter seeking upland game birds. The dog must be taught to stay within gun range to avoid flushing a bird outside of shooting distance.
- Follow Hand Signals Upland hunting involves pursuing wild game in its native habitat. Gun dogs must investigate likely covers for upland game birds. The dog must be responsive to hand signals in order for the hunter to be able to direct the dog into areas of particular interest.
- Steady When hunting upland birds, a flushing dog should be steady to wing and shot, meaning that he sits when a bird rises or a gun is fired. He does this in order to mark the fall and to avoid flushing other birds when pursuing a missed bird.
In literature and film
Elizabeth Barrett Browning wrote two poems to her red cocker spaniel Flush, "To Flush, My Dog" and "Flush or Faunus".
Flush: A Biography is an semi-fictional biography of Elizabeth Barrett Browning's red cocker spaniel written by Virginia Woolf and published in
The Barretts of Wimpole Street and The Barretts of Wimpole Street also have Elizabeth Barrett Browning's red cocker spaniel as a central character.
Jasper is a cocker spaniel which features in the Daphne du Maurier novel Rebecca (novel)
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge owned an English Cocker Spaniel called Lupo, and Lupo was bred from Ella, a dog owned by her parents Michael and Carole Middleton. He was a working-type English Cocker Spaniel. Lupo was born in a litter just prior to Christmas , and was given to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.
Following the birth of Prince George of Cambridge, Lupo was featured in one of the first official photographs. He was subsequently featured in a family portrait with the Duke and Duchess and Prince George in March 
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English Cocker Spaniel
Lady and the Tramp. Checkers the White House pet. That mischievous Coppertone sunscreen dog. English cocker spaniels have been some of the most beloved, most recognizable faces in media and advertising for decades. And its easy to see why: Their expressive, doe-like eyes and floppy ears make them very hard to resist.
But English cockers are more than just a pretty face. This breed has its roots in the hunting fields of North England. The English cocker spaniel is a loyal, athletic, intelligent dog that will love heading to the park, joining you on a pheasant hunt, or simply hanging out in the family room.
English cocker spaniels are a tad smaller than their springer spaniel cousins; males grow to be 1617 inches tall and 2834 pounds, while females stay around 1516 inches and 2632 pounds.
English cockers have a long, squarish nose, dark-colored eyes, and pendant ears. Their silky coats are long and soft, traditionally with some feathering at the ends. Working dogs will often have their hair trimmed much shorter than show dogs or family pets. English cocker spaniels are most commonly found in color combinations of black, red, liver, tan, orange, lemon, and/or white.
An English cockers tail will grow to a length of 89 inches when left to its own devices. However, as a hunting dog who spends time in thick underbrush, its been common practice for centuries to dock their tails down to about 4 inches to avoid injury while working. Today, docking is completely optional and often skipped, especially for family dogs.
Theres a reason this breed bears the nickname merry cocker. English cocker spaniels are cheerful, playful dogs with a delightful personality. Theyre also extremely loyal to their people. They make good pets for families with children thanks to their friendly disposition and compact size. However, smaller children should still be supervised, as English cockers can get suddenly cranky if touched on their extremities.
In English cockers I see a higher percentage of that flinchy attitude, Dennis Riordan, DVM, of the Riordan Pet Hospital in Des Moines, Iowa, says. They dont like having their ears and feet messed with and will tend to nip.
They are natural explorers and excellent retrievers who love to play fetch. But with all that energy and intelligence, English cocker spaniels can get bored easily.
When youve got an athlete dog like that, youve got to make sure youre getting them out to burn off that energy, Riordan says. If youre not doing that, youll get a frustrated dog.
Riordan adds that he's not crazy about Frisbees for them, because they can pull hamstrings jumping too high. But a tennis ball or stick is perfect.
Youll need to make sure your English cocker is well-trained to follow your commands from an early age. Spaniels are sensitive dogs who dont respond well to punishment or harsh scoldingthis only makes them insecure and less social. Be consistent but gentle when training, and reward him with plenty of treats and positive reinforcement. You can start training them as early as pups, and with the proper motivation and reinforcement, these smart dogs will learn fast.
English cocker spaniels develop strong bonds with their human companions and arent big fans of alone time. Anything more than a couple of hours by himself and your English cocker might get separation anxiety which could result in stress barking and destructive chewing.
When it comes to their home territory, the best way to describe an English cocker is watchdog, not guard dog. When people approach the house, your English cocker will bark and make sure everyone inside the house knows theres a visitor, and let everyone outside the house know theres a dog. But beyond that, English cockers have no real protection instincts.
English cocker spaniels are extremely adaptable pets. Theyre right at home in a spacious backyard, but theyre also cool with apartment living. They have the energy and intelligence to play well with children and younger adults, but also can be trained to serve as calm, reliable companions for seniors. They become fast friends with other dogs, and even cats if exposed to them at an early age.
Their medium-long fur enables them to do well in colder climates, but the lighter texture of their hair, combined with lack of an undercoat, make them well-suited to warmer areas.
Add all this up, and it means that an English cocker spaniel can thrive wherever you live, as long as you are able to tend to his exercise and companionship needs. Daily activity will be a welcome addition to any English cockers life. A game of fetch, a trip to the dog park, or some supervised backyard time will keep this breed happy. They are also natural runners with a high level of stamina and, once they are over a year old, English cockers would be happy to go for a jog with you.
English cocker spaniels tend to be low-maintenance dogs, except when it comes to brushing. English cockers have a double coat, which means under that long, silky hair is a thicker, dense undercoat that needs a lot of TLC. Give your English cocker a good but gentle brushing at least two to three times a week to keep their hair free of mats and tangles, and to keep the majority of the hair they shed off your floor. This breed is prone to ear infections, so be sure to clean their ears at least once a week.
Beyond that, your English cocker will be ready for a trim every six to eight weeks, depending on how long you like their hair, and a bath every month or two. Theyll also need regular nail trimming and tooth brushing.
Heres one of the most important things you need to know about English cocker spaniels: They can get chunky. Theyre not afraid of the dinner bowl, they WILL sneak (or straight up steal) any food they can get close to, and if they arent exercised properly, those extra calories will add up. So as the responsible one in this relationship, its up to you to monitor their diet, and to keep them moving and active throughout their life. As your pup ages and activity levels may drop, itll be important to adjust his food intake. Talk to your vet to ensure your dog is reducing calories without sacrificing nutrients.
Aside from obesity, the most common health issues for English cocker spaniels include progressive retinal atrophy, renal failure, and hip dysplasia. But that doesnt mean your pup will develop these conditions. With an eye towards a good diet, regular exercise, and regular checkups, you can help keep your dog happy and healthy.
Much like their springer relatives, English cocker spaniels can be susceptible to rage syndrome, a disorder that results in sudden, unprovoked explosions of aggressive behavior that disappear just as quickly as they began. Nobody knows what causes the outbursts, and the disorder is considered idiopathicmeaning experts aren't quite sure that causes the outburst. Thankfully, however, rage syndrome is very rare.
I just dont see that as a common trait, Riordan says. I know it exists, but I wouldnt chase someone off buying [a spaniel] because of that issue.
There have been spaniels recorded through art and literature for at least years. For most of that time, springers and cockers came from the same litter stock, the names being more of a size and job distinction. (Springers were the larger litter mates, chosen to spring fowl from the brush. Smaller cockers specialized in hunting a bird called the woodcock.) But by the turn of the 20th century, selective breeding had created distinct breeds, with springers and cockers becoming cousins on the family tree, rather than direct littermates.
With the creation of the American Spaniel Club in , both springers and cockers began to be bred for shows and competitions, rather than just as purely sporting animals. Springers and cockers were shown as the same breed of dog, until the Kennel Club created separate breed standards in
Since then, English cocker spaniels have become show and competition favorites, and they are the winningest breed in the history of the Crufts dog show, winning Best in Show seven times.
- Arguably the first superstar English cocker spaniel was a dog named My Own Brucie, who won back-to-back Best in Show awards at Westminster in and Upon Brucies death in , his obituary was carried in newspapers around the world and he was regarded as the most photographed dog in the world.
- When commercial artist Joyce Ballantyne Brand was creating her now iconic ad for Coppertone sunscreen, the dog pulling at the little girls bathing suit was based off her neighbors English cocker spaniel.
- The most famous animated English cocker spaniel was brought to life by Walt Disney in , with the release of Lady and the Tramp. Lady was was based on a real dog who was learning to deal with a new baby in the house.
- Celebrity owners of English cocker spaniels include Oprah Winfrey, George Clooney, Charlize Theron, and Kate Middleton.
A little later, Lyuba recognized Marina and Sergei Vladimirovich, she did not know what to do. The confusion lasted no more than a few seconds. Although she was afraid of being noticed, she still decided to see what happened next. Lyuba already realized that this couple would have sex soon and she wanted to see it.
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My head was spinning with fear. - Well, how. Fucking Swat in the ass or Nat. - continued to pry Rustam. no.Training my English Cocker Spaniel Puppy - 10 weeks old
Are you feeling okay. She asked almost affectionately. Yes, I'm feeling better now, thanks, Terri said uncertainly. I see, Daniela suddenly smiled slyly, it looks like our baby has already warmed up and is ready to play, she drew everyone's attention to the moisture.
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Are we going to chat or fuck. - Kelly interrupted him rudely, jumping off the bed so briskly, so briskly, as if there had not just been two strongest orgasms, after which some fatigue and relaxation. Usually occur. - Do you want me in the ass. Antonio, you seem to have dreamed especially about my ass.